Tuberculosis remains a threat to global health, killing ~2 million people every year. The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is thought to infect one third of world’s population, sickening ~10 million people a year. Despite efforts to simplify treatment strategies, tuberculosis still requires months of multi-drug therapy to cure. We merge engineering and molecular approaches to develop quantitative descriptions of the determinants of mycobacterial stress tolerance and virulence. Our approach is motivated by our recent finding that the asymmetric growth pattern of mycobacteria creates subpopulations of cells with different growth parameters and tolerance to antibiotic treatment. We are building a multidisciplinary research group that couples quantitative single-cell measurements and mathematical modeling with the goal of shortening and simplifying treatment regimens against tuberculosis.